Designing and Validating of the Scale of Virtuousness-Based Leadership in the Education of Iran

Document Type : Original Article


1 Associate Professor of Faculty of Education and Psycholog, Shiraz University, Fars, Iran.

2 Professor of Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shiraz University, Fars, Iran

3 Associate Professor of Faculty of Psychology and Education, Shiraz University, Fars, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor of Faculty of Psychology and Education, Shiraz University, Fars, Iran.

5 Ph.D. Student of Educational Administration, Faculty Education and Psychology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Fars, Iran



The purpose of this study was designing and validating a scale of virtuous leadership in the education of Iran. So far, extensive and wide efforts have been made in this regard but to date. It seems that there is no comprehensive and credible scale that can be valid and from a practical point of view that can be validated and practically guides faculty and faculty in professional practice. The research method was descriptive-correlation with emphasis on structural equations.
To accomplish the purpose, two studies were conducted, first a theoretical study through which the basic themes were extracted and important research related to the topic, then the validation process and the scale adequacy were determined.
The study population consisted of all faculty members of Shiraz University, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz and Persian Gulf University of Bushehr. Samples were selected using multistage Random Sampling Method in a total of 370 samples. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire of Virtuousness Oriented Leadership. This questionnaire was developed based on theoretical and research studies in 53 items with basic personal (personality, skill) and organizational factors. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.92 was obtained.
Face and content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts. Data were analyzed using SPSS and LISREL software. The results showed that the scale studied is valid. Thus individual factors with personality, skill and organizational factors are appropriate for designing a Virtuousness Oriented Leadership scale in the education.


Arasteh, H., & Jahed, H. (2011). Observing Ethics in Universities and Higher Education Centers: An alternative for improving behaviors. Science Cultivation, 2(1), 31-40. (in Persian).

Araujo, M.S.G., & Lopes, P.M.P.R. (2014). Virtuous leadership, organizational commitment and individual performance. Review of Applied Management Studies, 12, 3-10.
Avolio, B., Walumbwa, F., & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: Current Theories, Research, and Future Directions. Annual Review of Psychology, (60),421-449.
Balliett, T., & Kelloway, E.K. (2011). Wiley Online Library, Virtuous Leaders: Assessing Character Strengths in the Workplace. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 3(28), 270-283.
Barata, D. D. (2016). The Impact of Leader Engagement on the Creation of Innovation Culture. International Journal of Economics and Management, 1(10), 135-149.
Bocarnea, M., & Petan, L. (2016). Follower Perceptions of Authentic Leadership: A Comparison between Respondents from Romania and the United States. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, (221), 142-150.
Brown, J.B. (2011). The Building of a Virtuous Transformational Leader. The Journal of Virtues & Leadership, 1(2), 6-14.
Brown, M E., Treviño L.K., & Harrison D.A. (2005). Ethical Leadership: A Social Learning Perspective for Construct Development and Testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 2(97), 117-134.
Bryman, A. (2007). Effective Leadership in Higher Education. Research and Development Series: Summary of Finding School of Management. London: University of Leicester.
Caldwell, C., Hasan, Z., & Smith, S. (2015). Virtuous leadership – insights for the 21st century. Journal of Management Development, 9(34), 1-20.
Callina, K.S., Ryan, D., Murray, E.D., Colby, A., Damon W., Matthews, M., & Lerner, R.M. (2017).  Developing Leaders of Character at the United States Military Academy: A Relational Developmental Systems Analysis. Journal of College and Character, 1(18), 9-27.
Cameron, K., & Caza, M. (2003). Organizational and Leadership Virtues and the Role of Forgiveness.  Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 1(9), 1-33.
Cardwell, S. (2016). Leadership in Educational Organizational. The University of British Columbia Faculty of Education Department of Educational Studies, 28, 1-19. 
 Carter, S.M., & Greer, C.R. (2013). Strategic Leadership: Values, Styles, and Organizational Performance. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 4(20), 375-393.
Chikeleze, M.C. (2014). Validation of ethical leadership style questionnaire. Ph.D. Thesis, in values-driven leadership. Benedictine university.
Hargrove, D. (2017). The Building Blocks of Authentic Leadership: Being Consistent and Being Seen. Ph.D. Thesis, in Business Administration, Duke University.
Hazrati, M., & Memarzadeh Tehran, G. (2014). Designing the Model of Ethical Leadership, Compatible to the Governmental Organizations of Iran. Journal of Development Evolution, 18, 63-70. (in Persian).
Hejazi F.S., Danaee F.H., & Bagheri K.M. (2016). Identifying the Components of Virtuous and Jihadist Organizations, Case Study: Islamic Revolution Committee and Structural Jihad. Scientific Journal of Islamic management, 4(23), 45-71. (In Persian).
Hessel, L.T.D. (2013). Developing a virtuous Aspect of Leadership: A Case Study of The Virtues Project’s Approach to Leadership Development. M.s Thesis, in Education Department of Educational Research Faculty of Educational Sciences, University of Oslo.
Hoy, W., K. & Miskel, C. G. (2005). Educational Administration: Theory, Research, and Practice. USA. Mc Graw. Hill. 
Importance in Sustaining Organizations Over the Long Term. The Journal of Values – Based Leadership, 1(11), 1-10.
Khorshid, S., & Qolizadeh, N. (2016). Impact of Spiritual Leadership on Employees Spiritual Well-Being and LMX Quality in Treatment and Health System. Management in the Islamic University, 11(5), 83-106.     
Luthans, F. (2011). Organizational Behavior: An Evidence-Based Approach. 12th, USA. McGraw-Hill.
Mathew, J., Susannash L. E., Ekanem E. & Musibau A.A. (2016).  Organizational Leadership and Culture in the Advertising Industry. Journal of Business and African Economy, 1(2), 43-58.
Northouse, P.G. (2013). Leadership: theory and practice. SAGE Publications, Inc.
Pearce, C. L., Waldman, D.A., & Csikszentmihaly, M. (2006). Virtuous Leadership: A Theoretical Model and Research Agenda. Journal of Management. Spirituality & Religion, 1(3), 60-77.
Pless, N.M., & Maak, T. (2011). Responsible Leadership: Pathways to the Future. Journal of Business Ethics, (98), 3-13.
Racelis, A.D. (2013). Developing A Virtue Ethics Scale: Exploratory Survey of Philippine Managers. Asian Journal of Business and Accounting, 1(6), 15-37.
Rajaeepour, S., Karimi, N., & Navehebrahim, A. (2018). Designing and Validating a Model for the Function-based Performance Evaluation of Department chairs. Journal of Management System, 33(9), 291-328. (In Persian).
Rashnavadi, A., Zarei, M.H., Jandaghi, G., & Alvani, M. (2016). Model of Leadership based on Soft Power in Iranian Higher Education. Organizational Culture Management, 3(14), 649-669. (In Persian).
Rego, A., Vitória, A., Magalhaes, A., Ribeiro, N., & Cunha, M.P. (2013). Are authentic leaders associated with more virtuous, committed and potent teams. The Leadership Quarterly, (24), 61-79.
Rego, P., Lopes, M, P., & Narscimento, J.L. (2016). Authentic leadership and organizational commitment: The mediating role of positive psychological capital. Journal of industrial Engineering and management, 1(9), 129-151.
Scott, W. R. (1998). Organizations: rational, natural, and open systems. 4th Ed. Singapore, Prentice Hall.
Singh, D. & Stückelberger, C. (Eds.) (2017). Ethics in Higher Education: Values-driven Leaders for the Future. Geneva:
Smith, E.S. (2013). Toward Organizational Environmental Virtuousness. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 1(49), 123-148.
Yukl, G. A. (2011). Leadership in organizations. Dorling Kindersley (India). New Delhi.