The relationship between creativity and intelligence with wisdom in youths

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Welfare Organization

2 Department of Psychology and Educational, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan barnch, Gorgan, Iran

3 Department of Education

Abstract

Background: One of the theoretical perspectives for the study of wisdom is related to intelligence. Equilibrium theory of wisdom begins with tacit knowledge structure which is a major component of practical intelligence. Hypotheses also show that there is a relationship between creativity and wisdom. Therefore, this research has been conducted in the field of Wisdom with an analytical approach and is a correlation study.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between creativity and intelligence with wisdom in youths.
Methods: The research design is correlation. Sample consisted of 120 volunteer. Their mean age was 20(in the range of 16-24) who 50 percent (n = 60) were girl and 50 percent (n = 60) were boy. Wechsler Youth Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R), Torrance Test creativity, Abedi creativity test was used to collect information from three-dimensional scale of wisdom (3D-WS). Pearson correlation test was used to analyze the data.
Results: The results showed that there is a significant relationship between creativity and intelligence with wisdom and creativity, if a person gets higher score in creativity and intelligence with wisdom index will get higher score in wisdom. Given the importance of internal and external factors associated with wisdom, understanding these factors will contribute to a better understanding of wisdom structure.
Conclusions: The findings indicate that there is a relationship between intelligence and creativity with wisdom. Therefore, further research in this field and the emphasis on the subject of creativity and intelligence in the educational system can enrich the concept of wisdom in the future.

Keywords


Anderson, B. J. (1998). Development of wisdom-related knowledge in adolescence and young youthhood.Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto.

Arlin, P. K. (1990). Wisdom: The art of problem finding. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Wisdom: Its nature, origins, and development (pp. 230–243). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Assmann, A. (1994). Wholesome knowledge: Concepts of wisdom in a historical and cross-cultural perspective. Life-Span Development and Behavior, 12, 187–224.McDonald, & D. Klaassen (Eds.), Selected Proceedings on Searching for Meaning in the NewMillennium.

Baltes, P. B., & Smith, J. (1990).Toward a psychology of wisdom and its ontogenesis. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Wisdom: Its nature, origins, and development (pp. 87–120). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Baltes, P. B., & Staudinger, U. M. (1993). The search for a psychology of wisdom. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2, 75–80.

Baltes, P. B., & Staudinger, U. M. (2000). Wisdom: A metaheuristic (pragmatic) to orchestrate mind and virtue toward excellence. American Psychologist, 55, 122–136.

Birren, J. E., & Fisher, L. M. (1990). The elements of wisdom: Overview and integration. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Wisdom: Its nature, origins, and development (pp. 317–332). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Clayton, V. P., &Birren, J. E. (1980). The development of wisdomacross the life span: An reexamination of an ancient topic. Life-Span Development and Behavior, 3, 103–135.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.

Csikszentmihalyi, M., &Rathunde, K. (1990). The psychology of wisdom: An evolutionary interpretation. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), Wisdom: Its nature, origins, and development (pp. 25–51). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Gardner,H. (1983). Frames of mind – The theory of multiple intelligences. New York:Basic Books.

Horn, J., &Masunaga, H. (2000). On theemergence of wisdom: Expertise development.In W. S. Brown (Ed.), Understandingwisdom: Sources, science and society. Lawsof life symposia series, (Vol. 3, pp. 245–276).

Holliday, S. G., & Chandler, M. J. (1986). Wisdom: Explorations inyouth competence. Basel, Switzerland: Karger.

KhodaRahimi Siamak. (2004). The examination of the relationship between family environment with non-verbal creativity of secondary grade female students of Shiraz. Master's thesis, University of Shiraz.

Simonton, D. K. (1990).Creativity andwisdom in aging. In J. E. Birren& K. W.Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychologyof aging (3rd edition, pp. 320–329). SanDiego: Academic Press.

Sternberg, R. J.,Wagner, R. K.,Williams,W. M., & Horvath, J. A. (1995). Testingcommon sense.American Psychologist, 50, 912–927.

Sternberg, R. J. (1997). Successful intelligence. New York: Plenum.

Sternberg, R. J. (2000). Why schools should teach for wisdom: The balance theory of wisdom in educational settings. Educational  sychologist, 36, 227–245.

Sternberg, R., & Jordan, J. (Eds.).(2005). Handbookof wisdom. New York, NY: CambridgeUniversity Press.

Sternberg, R. J. (1985). Implicit theories of intelligence, creativity, and wisdom.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 607– 627.

Sternberg, R. J. (Ed.). (1990). Wisdom: Its nature, origins, and development. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Sternberg, R. J. (1998). A balance theory of wisdom.Review of General Psychology, 2, 347–365.

Sternberg, R. J., & Wagner, R. K. (Eds.).(1986). Practical intelligence - Nature and origins of competence in the everyday world. New York: Cambridge University Press.